Selected Courses on Digital Art-UOWM

2 Μαΐου 2013

SOUND -AUDIOTORY-SYNESTHISIA-sound/advanced electronic sound SEM 3/4-7/8

Filed under: NOTES ON SOUND ART — Ετικέτες: — admin @ 20:30

john cage

the first impression
chaotic-noisy disorganized

Cage originally made his chance decisions by tossing yellow sticks or coins , according to practices described in the I think.

he later found found a more productive way 

  -categories of sounds (urban, wind,……-produced, manually produced sounds(including musical instruments) -what today looks as an easy assignment -recording literally hundred of sounds (barrons) -elements -sound recordings (equipment)

get sound forge-vegas// get open source audio programms




R650 All our o the synesthete subjects(S1–S4, ages 23–33, 1 woman) hadnormal visual acuity and no knownhearing or neurological decits. Theirvisually-induced sound perceptionsoccur automatically, cannot be turnedo, and have been experienced oras long as they can remember goingback into childhood. The percepts aretypically simple, non-linguistic sounds(such as beeping, tapping or whirring)that are temporally associated withvisual fashes or continuous visualmotion. Eye movements over astationary scene (retinal motion) donot typically evoke sound. In dailyexperience, all our subjects aregenerally able to distinguish theirsynesthetic sound percepts rompercepts induced by real auditorystimuli, but occasional conusionexists. We reer to this phenomenonas ‘hearing-motion’ synesthesia, eventhough non-moving visual fashesalso trigger sound perception asdemonstrated next.Our goal was to devise a task orwhich hearing-motion synesthesiawould coner a perormance advantage, as this would bestrong objective evidence or theperceptual experience[4]. Typically(in non-synesthetes), people have anadvantage in judging rhythmic patternso sound compared to equivalentvisual rhythmic patterns[7,8]. We thuspredicted that synesthetes wouldperorm better than controls in a taskinvolving visual rhythmic sequencesbecause synesthetes would not onlysee, but also hear the patterns.

The sound ochange: visually-induced auditorysynesthesiaMelissa Saenz and Christo KochSynesthesia is a benign neurological condition in humans characterized by involuntary cross-activation othe senses, and estimated to aectat least 1% o the population[1].Multiple orms o synesthesia exist,including distinct visual, tactile orgustatory perceptions which areautomatically triggered by a stimuluswith dierent sensory properties[1–6],such as seeing colors when hearingmusic. Surprisingly, there has beenno previous report o synestheticsound perception. Here we report thatauditory synesthesia does indeed existwith evidence rom our healthy adultsor whom seeing visual fashes orvisual motion automatically causes theperception o sound. As an objectivetest, we show that ‘hearing-motionsynesthetes’ outperormed normalcontrol subjects on an otherwisedicult visual task involving rhythmictemporal patterns similar to Morsecode. Synesthetes had an advantagebecause they not could not only see,but also hear the rhythmic visualpatterns. Hearing-motion synesthesiacould be a useul tool or studying howthe auditory and visual processingsystems interact in the brain.ASample ‘same’trial:interval 1:interval 2:Sample ‘different’trial:Sample rhythmic sequence composed of flashes or beeps:20050100Time (ms)interval 1:interval 2:p< 0.0001N.S.Controls(n=10)Synesthetes(n=4)B1009080706050   %   c  o  r  r  e  c  tSoundVisionCurrent BiologyFigure 1. Visually-induced auditory synesthesia.(A) Sequences were composed o intermixed long (200 ms) and short (50 ms) duration stimuliseparated by blank intervals (100 ms) similar to Morse code (bars depict stimulus on-times). Thestimuli were either tonal beeps (360 Hz) on sound trials or centrally fashed discs (1.5 deg radius)on visual trials. On each trial, subjects judged whether two successivesequences (either bothsound or both visual) were the ‘same’ or ‘dierent’. (B) Mean perormance (% correct trials) orcontrol and synesthete subjects (+/− SEM). All subjects had good accuracy on sound trials, butsynesthetes dramatically outperormed controls on the otherwise dicult visual trials. Movies osample trials located online atore emerges whereby one othe key unctions o the intact basalganglia is to link positive outcomesto subsequent behaviour, whetherpredominantly cognitive or motorin its demands, and to modiy thisrelationship accordingto motivational state.Supplemental dataSupplemental data are available at ull/18/15/R648/DC1 AcknowledgmentsThis work was supported by the MedicalResearch Council, Welcome Trust, FWO- Vlaanderen and Strategisch Basisonderzoek.Reerences1. Niv, Y. (2007). Cost, benet, tonic, phasic: whatdo response rates tell us about dopamine andmotivation? Ann. NY Acad. Sci.1104, 357–376.2. Satoh, T., Nakai, S., Sato, T., and Kimura, M.(2003). Correlated coding o motivation andoutcome o decision by dopamine neurons.J. Neurosci. 23, 9913–9923.3. Brown, P., Chen, C.C., Wang, S., Kühn, A.A.,Doyle, L., Yarrow, K., Nuttin, B., Stein, J.,and Aziz, T. (2006). Involvement o humanbasal ganglia in o-line eed-back control ovoluntary movement. Curr. Biol.16, 2129–2134.4. Hamani, C., Saint-Cyr, J.A., Fraser, J., Kaplitt,M., and Lozano, A.M. (2004). The subthalamicnucleus in the context o movement disorders.Brain127, 4–20.5. Frank, M.J., Seeberger, L., and O’Reilly, R. C.(2004). By carrot or by stick: Cognitivereinorcement learning in Parkinsonism.Science 306, 1940–1943.6. Shohamy, D., Myers, C.E., Onlaor, S. Grossman,S., Sage, J., Gluck, M.A., and Poldrack,R.A. (2004). Cortico-striatal contributions toeedback-based learning: Converging datarom neuroimaging and neuropsychology.Brain127, 851–859.7. Kemp, F., Brücke, C., Kühn, A.A., Schneider,G.H., Kupsch, A., Chen, C.C., Androulidakis, A.G., Wang, S., Vandenberghe, W., Nuttin, B.,et al.(2007). Modulation by dopamine o humanbasal ganglia involvement in eedback controlo movement. Curr. Biol.17, R587–R589.8. O’Doherty, J., Dayan, P., Schultz, J.,Deichmann, R., Friston, K., and Dolan, R.J.(2004). Dissociable roles o ventral and dorsalstriatum in instrumental conditioning. Science 304, 452–454.9. Wrase, J., Kahnt, T., Schlagenhau, F., Beck, A.,Cohen, M.X., Knutson, B., and Heinz, A. (2007).Dierent neural systems adjust motor behaviorin response to reward and punishment.Neuroimage 36, 1253–1262.10. Tricomi, E.M., Delgado, M.R., and Fiez, J.A.(2004). Modulation o caudate activity by actioncontingency. Neuron41, 281–292.1Department o Neurology and2Departmento Neurosurgery, Charité-University MedicineBerlin, CVK, Berlin, Germany.3SobellDepartment o Motor Neuroscience andMovement Disorders, Institute o Neurology,London, UK.4Department o Neurosurgery,Kings College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London,UK.5Department o Physiology, Anatomy andGenetics and6Department o NeurologicalSurgery, Radclie Inrmary, Oxord, UK.7Department o Neurology and8Neurosurgery,Katholieke Universiteit Leuven,

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